Is there a specific recipe for cakes that one can carve?
Not at all but it is always better to use a dense cake. It also helps to refrigerate the cake before you carve because it makes the cake more firm and easier to carve.
I recently did a carved cake of a boat, I used a packet mix as I was in a hurry. I baked a square cake, frosted it as normal, chilled it and then it was easy to carve! :) All the cut offs made a nice tasting and I can freeze the rest for a cakeless day.
Yes- def use a dense cake recipe. Some use a pound cake recipe, while I mostly use a doctored mix recipe, which is by its nature, a denser cake than just a 'straight' mix.
And I generally keep to simple frosting between layers or a whipped ganache or mousse....fruit jams are usually just to messy for a carved cake!