they look like they were piped on with royal icing. just make little dots with a round tip.
Looks like they're just royal icing piped (same technique as the snail trail.) I'm thinking they used a tip 2.
ok so your saying use a round tip pipe on and pul towards the center of the flower then fill it in, and for the others pipe on three dots pull towards the stem? Is that correct? Also what do you think of the stem, icing or fondant?
The stem looks like royal icing to me.