I decided to make this shorter and not post the pages of information I have on it.
Hopefully, this will help some of you out. I am in no way a chocolate expert. These are just some of my notes I wanted to post to help out.
Sweet ChocolateâA typical sweet chocolate contains 42% chocolate liquor, 42% sugar and 16% added cocoa butter. Chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and sugar. Used mainly for mousses, garnishes and baking.
Bitter-Sweet Chocolate- Pretty much the same as semi-sweet but contains less sugar
Cocoa Powder- part of the fat or cocoa butter has been removed from cocoa powder, but it contains from 10% to 22% or more fat and is sometimes treated with an alkali salt which neutralizes the natural acidity of the cocoa and deepens the color. When the coca butter is removed from the chocolate liquor, the residual left is ground into cocoa powder. There are 2 types of cocoa powder: 1) Natural- straight coca powder that has a light color. 2) dutch processed cocoa
Milk Chocolate- Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate in which the flavor has been modified by the addition of whole milk solids. The US standard calls for a minimum of 12% whole milk solids, but good quality chocolate contain as much as 20% to 22% Chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and condensed milk. Used mainly for decorating, mousses and garnish. 30% cocoa solids, 28-30% cocoa butter, 10-20% condensed milk, 20% sugar.
Cocoa Butter- The pure fat extracted by pressure from the ground and crushed cocoa bean is used in the manufacture of confectionary. The fat obtained by the pressing is done at a temperature of 160 â 190 degrees F., then it is filtered. No chemicals or other fat solutions may be used.
Chocolate Liquor â (Bakers chocolate and unsweetened chocolate) Contains 50% cocoa butter and no sugar. Generally used in baking where a high percentage of sugar is used. All dark chocolate comes from this. 50% cocoa butter and 50% cocoa solids.
White Chocolate- This is NOT a real chocolate since it is not made with using chocolate liquor. It contains cocoa butter, sugar and condensed milk. This is used mainly with mousses and garnishes. 33% cocoa butter, 33% condensed milk and 33% sugar.
Coverture- Expensive because it takes a longer process to make. Contains a very high % of cocoa butter. Perfect for molding candies and for pastry work.
Chocolate Coating- Chocolate with the natural fat removed and replaced with less expensive vegetable fat. This reduces the need for a skilled temper.
*Chocolate contains approximately 2,214 calories per pound.
*The more sugar the cheaper the chocolate.
* 4/5 of the world crops to make chocolate are harvested in the months September through March.
How to temper: Tempering prevents the seperation of cocoa butter from the solids when the chocolate is melted. When chocolate is properly tempered it will set rapidly and have a high shine. During the process of tempering, the object is to form an emulsion between the cocoa butter and the solids, resulting in a high gloss. Tempered chocolate should never go over 90 Degrees F., white chocolate 85 degrees F. and milk chocolate 88.5 degrees F. Room conditions should be at 65 degrees F. and humidity no higher than 50%.
There is 4 ways to temper chocolate:
1) Chocolate tempering machine (Boy, I wish I had one of these!!!!)
2) Injection Method
3) Tabulation Method
4) Indirect Method
****WATER IS THE SWARN ENEMY OF CHOCOLATE****
These are the short instructions describing the methods since I know most will be utilizing a double boiler method. Iâll give better instructions for that one.
Injection Method: Chocolate is melted between 100 F. and 110 F. Fine chocolate shavings are added and the mixture is stirred constantly to a temperature of 86 F. to 89 F.
Tabulation Method: Melt chocolate to 100 F. to 110 F. or until chocolate is melted and smooth. Pour about 1/3 to Â½ of the batch on a clean marble slab and work constantly with a spatula until it is 65 F. At this temperature, the chocolate starts to set (quick recrystalazation). Mix together the cool worked chocolate and the warm melted chocolate together, the temperature should be between 86 F. to 89 F.
Indirect Method: Melt chocolate to 100 F. to 110 F. Add 1 large chunk of chocolate stirring occasionally until mixture reaches 86 F. to 89 F.
The chocolate tempering method the machine does the work for you. Thatâs why I want one.
1) Clean dry stainless steel bowl.
2) Double boiler
3) Donât let boil, just a simmer.
4) Make sure right size bowl for the right size pot. Steam is a form of water and as stated earlier that will cause your chocolate to seize if it gets into the chocolate.
Either moisture or heat can affect the milk proteins in chocolate and cause the process known as âDenaturingâ, which is a tightening, seizing or lumping of the chocolate. Always chop chocolate into small pieces before melting. Never melt chocolate over direct heat or over boiling water. Never melt chocolate over 115 F. Do not stir until at least 10% of the chocolate has melted. Stirring too soon will cause the melted chocolate to stick to the unmelted chocolate and solidify. Do not let chocolate sit too long in a double boiler before stirring it. Always melt chocolate in a double boiler over low heat with a wooden spoon. Never allow steam to come in contact with the chocolate.
TEMPERING: Melt to 105 F. to 110 F. (some will say 100 F. to 110 F.), let cool down to 65 F. to 70 F. Then bring temperature back up to 86 F. to 89 F. This is the perfect temperature to work with the chocolate, so start working immedietly.
*With white chocolate you may need to add some fat like vegetable oil or a clarified butter.
*If properly tempering the chocolate should set within a few minutes.
BLOOMING: The blooming or the graying of chocolate results from either high humidity, temperatures over 75 F. or improper tempering. There are 2 forms of blooming.
Cocoa Bloom- This is where the cocoa butter comes through the cocoa solids. This doesnât ruin the taste of the chocolate but gives it a dull shine and gray streaks through out it. Once this happens the chocolate must be remelted and tempered again.
Water Bloom- This is where the chocolate, placed in a refrigerator, draws the moisture (sweats) into the chocolate, resulting in water beads on the chocolate. Tightly wrap any chocolate before placing it in the fridge.
*Never refrigerate tempered chocolate this defeats the purpose of tempering it. (However, there are certain cases where you might have too).
*A trick to keep you chocolate warm while off the double boiler for dipping is to use a heating pad underneath the bowl. Just wipe the bowls bottom dry first. I put a small towel under the bowl just in case also. (Iâm a chicken sometimes when it comes to chocolate).
If you have more chocolate tempered than what you need save it till next time. However, when you go to re-use the chocolate it MUST BE RE-TEMPERED ALL OVER AGAIN.
ADDING CHOCOLATE TO OTHER INGREDIENTS: Chocolate must always be in a liquid state and at 85 F. before adding to other ingredients. Always add ingredients to the chocolate, never vice-versa, otherwise you will have a chocolate chip. When adding to whipped cream or egg whites, stir in a small portion of the product, then fold into remaining ingredients.
Measurements for recipes:
1# of chocolate = 12 oz. of cocoa powder and increase fat content in a recipe by 4 oz.
1# of coca powder = 1# 10 oz. chocolate and decrease fat in a recipe by 4 oz.
*Vanillin is a commercial vanilla substitute used for candy making*
STORAGE: Chocolate should be stored between 60 F. and 75 F., with no more than 50% relative humidity.
Semi and bitter should store 1-1o years
Milk 6-8 months
White 4-6 months.
Thank you! I can't wait to try!
mkolar, thanks for the 101.
i have a few questions:
(1) when using the indirect method, do i remove the chocolate from the heat before adding the large chunk of chocolate?
(2) do you use a candy thermometer to test the temperature of the chocolate?
(3) if i want to fill candy molds, is it as simple as adding the tempered chocolate to the molds and placing them aside to set?
1) Yes. Remove the chocolate from the heat and wipe the steam off the bottom of the bowl. Then add the chocolate chunk.
2) Yes, use a thermometer to test the chocolates temp. This is a must. My candy therm. is junk so I use my other food therm. to test right now until I can buy a better candy one. They even sell therm. that you just point it at the product and a beam will read the item you want and tell you what the temp. is.
3)If you want to fill candy molds just make sure the mold is clean and dry. Add the chocolate, tap the mold lightly to get out the air bubbles and then set aside to set.
If you want to have a filling for your candy fill each mold with chocolate and shake lightly to coat then flip upside down to drain out the chocolate back into the bowl. Set aside till set up. Add your filling then cover with more chocolate. Take a offset spatula and go across the mold to make the bottoms level and even. Set aside to chocolate is completely set and then you can un-mold the chocolates.
There is a product you can also buy called cocoa butter that comes in colors. You can buy at shopchefrubber.com. They come in small looking cans and cost about $20 each. They are sold in colors. You need an airbrush though and can use it to spray the color in the molds and then when you un-mold the chocolates that color will be on the top.
mkolmar, thanks so much for asking my questions...i can't wait to start making my own chocolates.
what about the luster dust? do you dust the molds first and then fill with chocolate?
I've read that you can luster dust the molds first and then fill.
I just did some molded chocolates 2 days ago though and dusted them after I un-molded them and it was fine. I'll try it the other way next time to compare.
Great information. Thank you so much.
Thanks so much for the awesome information. It most definatly will come in handy w/ the holidays coming up and choosing my combinations.